CANCER AND POLYPS of the colon require surgical resection if they can not be removed with a colonoscopy through the bottom. This requires removing a segment of the colon and then putting the two ends back together again much like a plumber splicing two pieces of pipe back together.
DIVERTICULOSIS is small pouches that can occur on the colon wall. Sometimes they can become inflamed causing abdominal pain which is treated with medications. If this becomes a recurring problem then surgical resection of that part of the colon is recommended.
STRICTURES/OBSTRUCTION of the bowels and colon typically result in a trip to the emergency room because of abdominal bloating, cramps and vomiting. Sometimes this can be managed without surgery but if the blockage is too severe surgery is needed.
FISTULA are unwanted communication between two body parts. For instance a fistula can form between the colon and the urinary bladder which will results in severe recurrent urinary infections and sometimes passing air out the urethra. When a fistula occurs a surgeon is needed to figure out the best way of curing it.