HERNIAS are holes in the abdominal wall. They can occur in the groin (inguinal hernia), from a prior surgery (incisional hernia), at the belly button (umbilical hernia) and else where on the abdominal wall (ventral hernia). When they get large enough the abdominal contents (fat or bowels) can push through the hole making the overlying skin bulge out. The only way to fix a hernia is with surgery.
PAIN from adhesions can occur anywhere in the abdomen. Adhesions are scar tissue from a prior abdominal surgery or even from a severe blow to the abdomen in the past. Pain from the adhesions sometimes may not happen until years and sometimes decades later. Surgery is the only way to both diagnose this problem and potentially cure this cause of abdominal pain.